Sunday, September 25, 2011

W O I I I I  ! ! !


sje conteng kihkihkih

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Physiology of Excretion

1. Kidney’s role in organism.

2. Cross anatomy of the kidney.

2.1. The functional anatomy of nephron.

2.1.1. Renal corpuscle.

2.1.2. Proximal tubule.

2.1.3. Loop of Henle.

2.1.4. Distal nephron.

3. Renal circulation. Pressure in renal vessels. Physiological aspects of renal circulation.

3.1. Blood flow.

3.2. Regulation of the renal blood flow.

3.3. Function of the renal nerves.

3.4. Autoregulation of renal blood flow.

3.5. Regional blood flow.

4. Glomerular filtration.

4.1. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

4.2. Normal GFR. Control of GFR.

4.3. Factors influencing the filtration.

4.4. Applied physiology.

5. Tubular function.

5.1. Mechanism of tubular reabsorbtion and secretion.

5.1.1. Na + reabsorbtion.

5.1.2. Factors influencing Na + reabsorbtion.

5.2. Water reabsorbtion.

5.3. Glucose reabsorbtion.

5.4. Amino acid reabsorbtion.

5.5. Bicarbonate reabsorbtion.

5.6. Phosphate reabsorbtion.

5.7. Potassium.

5.8. Urea, uric acid.

6. Tubuloglomerular feedback and glomerulotubular balance.

7. Fanconi’s syndrome.

8. Water excretion.

9. Proximal tubule.

10. Loop of Henle.

11. Distal tubule.

12. Collecting ducts.

13. The countercurrent mechanism.

14. Role of urea. Water diuresis. Water intoxication.

15. Osmotic diuresis.

16. Effects of disordered renal function.

17. Emptying of the bladder. Anatomic considerations. Micturition.

18.Reflex control. Abnormalities of micturition. Effects of deafferentation.

1. Effects of denervation. Effects of spinal cord transection.

2. Composition of urine (volume, specific gravity, color, reaction).

3. Alkaline tide. Microscopical examination.

4. Renin angiotensin system. Effects of angiotensin. Applied physiology.

5. Factors controlling Na+ excretion by the kidney (changing the GFR; aldosterone; Natriuretic factors).


Дневник can be downloaded here......juz click n download....:)

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

uxod 18 mac 2011

Medical Care,Chapter 11 : Observation and Care for the Patients with Disease of Urinary System

1.General info. & Diuresis and its violation. Collection of urine for laboratory investigation (azly,amir,meera,sujendra)
2.Chemical examination.(jim)
3.Microscopical examination(nasyrah)
4.Preparation of the patients for instrumental investigation of the urinary system. Features of observation and care for the patients at some renal disease.(isyafiq)
5.Observation and care for the patients at urine retention. Observation and care for the patients with urine incontinence.(izzati)

p/s:setiap org sepatutnya minimum 2 page n maximum 3 page seorang,tp untuk soalan 1,5 page untuk 4,kalau nak tuka sendiri2 lah ye....